Tag Archives: Ralph Adams Cram

AAM@50: The 2016 Fair-Chester Conference

These sketches were published in the February 2016 issue of The Journal of the Association of Anglican Musicians. 

For almost three years prior to June 2016 my local colleagues and I worked regularly as we prepared to host the 50th anniversary conference of the AAM held in Westchester County, New York, and Fairfield County, Connecticut. For this reason the conference became known as the Fair-Chester Conference.

One of my tasks was to prepare brief sketches on the conference venues and organs for the Journal, a very enjoyable job as there are many significant examples of each in the area, and part of the conference intent was to showcase the differing styles of architecture in which we worship and make music. Terry Byrd Eason was a featured conference personality as he took us through significant details at each venue. 

As preparations and schedules emerged it was with regret that the committee had to cancel plans to visit the churches in New Canaan and Mt. Kisco but I’ve included details here of these architecturally significant churches.

Copyright 2016 © Neal Campbell


St. Barnabas Episcopal Church, Greenwich, CT

Established in the early 1950s St. Barnabas was admitted to the Diocese of Connecticut as a parish church in 1967, and was designed by Greenwich architect Philip Ives. Richards, Fowkes & Co. installed its Opus 1, there in 1991.

St Barnabas

Richards, Fowkes & Co., Opus 1


St. John’s Lutheran Church, Stamford, CT

The original St. John’s Lutheran Church was formed in the mid-19th century by Swedish immigrants who moved into the area from Bridgeport. The present building, inspired by the New England meeting house style, was built in 1954.

The organ was built by Richards, Fowkes & Co. in 1995

Stamford St John's Lutheran Organ

St. John’s Lutheran Church, Stamford. Richards, Fowkes & Co. organ


First Presbyterian Church, Stamford, CT

Known colloquially as the “Fish Church” because of its appearance in profile and floor plan, the First Presbyterian Church is generally considered to be one of the most significant ecclesiastical structures of the 20th Century. Designed by Wallace K. Harrison it was dedicated in 1958 and is unique in its combined use of precast concrete slabs together with thick faceted glass designed by Gabriel Loire of Chartres, France.

The organ is Visser-Rowland’s Opus 87. The carillon in the tower was built by Gillett & Johnston in 1947 and amended by Paccard in 1968.


The “Fish” Church, Stamford


St. John’s Episcopal Church, Stamford, CT

The parish traces its history to the pre-Revolutionary War era and originally included what is now Greenwich, Stamford, Darien, and New Canaan, and is the mother church of Anglicans in Fairfield County.

The present building, the third for the parish, was designed by noted Victorian Gothic architect William Potter who designed many churches in New York and academic buildings on the campus of Princeton University in the latter half of the 19th century.

The new church was opened for worship in 1891 and originally contained a Roosevelt organ. In 1917 Skinner installed its Opus 277 and it served the church until the 1960s when a new McManus organ was installed in the gallery.  In 1990 the church installed the present organ, essentially a new instrument incorporating selected pipework from the previous organs. In an unusual arrangement, the church functioned as general contractor for the new organ and farmed out work according to its specifications, all under the direction of Craig Ferguson, chairman of the organ committee and vestryman of the parish. Tonal work was facilitated by Bruce Schultz and mechanical, engineering, and structural design was completed by the Foley-Baker.

In the late 1980s the church began plans to develop its property into an innovative design which came to be known as Canterbury Green, a mixed use complex consisting of apartments, retail stores, parking, pedestrian arcades, and a park-like garth surrounding the church, all of which was given the New York State Association of Architects Award in 1995.

Canterbury Green

Canterbury Green rising around St. John’s Church.


Chancel of St. John’s Church, Stamford


Christ Church, Greenwich, CT

Established as a parish in 1749, the present church building was built in 1910 to a design by local architect William F. Dominick. The noted parish Choir of Men and Boys was established in 1934 and has since been joined by the Choir of Girls, a mixed adult choir, a training choir, and a Compline Choir.

The church has recently undergone an extensive restoration. The large Austin organ was installed in 1976.


Christ Church, Greenwich


Christ Church, New Haven, CT

From 1895-98 Henry Vaughan directed the work of building the present Christ Church specifically for the purposes and needs of Anglo-Catholic worship, and it is considered to be a masterpiece of his style of parish church architecture.

With close ties to Yale University and the Institute of Sacred Music, the music of Christ Church attracted considerable attention under the leadership of our colleague Rob Lehman, and was among the first churches on college campuses to introduce Compline into its rota as an offering targeted to the student population. In addition to his position as Professor of Organ at Yale, Thomas Murray is the organist of the church.

Lively-Fulcher installed a new organ in 2005.



Antique print of Christ Church, New Haven



Console of the new Lively-Fulcher organ, Christ Church, New Haven


Trinity Church-on-the-Green, New Haven, CT

Trinity Church, one of three churches on the largest town green in New England, was designed in 1813 by Ithiel Town, who developed his version of “Gothick Style” some twenty or thirty years before what has come to be the accepted beginning of the Gothic Revival in America.

Trinity maintains one of the oldest choirs of men and boys in America, having begun in 1885. The church has since established a parallel program for men and girls, and adults. Walden Moore recently observed his 30th anniversary as Organist and Choirmaster of the church, following in the lineage of Stephen Loher and G. Huntington Byles.

The organ was built by Aeolian-Skinner in 1935 and is maintained by Joseph Dzeda of the Thompson-Allen Co., also curators of the organs at Yale University.



Aeolian-Skinner Opus 927, Trinity on the Green, New Haven


Woolsey Hall, Yale University, New Haven, CT

Woolsey Hall is the principal auditorium on the campus of Yale University and is used for a variety of academic and community performances and events. It is part of the Bicentennial Building Complex built in 1901 which also includes the Memorial Rotunda and the University Commons. It was designed in the Beaux Arts style by the noted New York firm Carrière & Hastings and seats some 2,600 persons. In it is contained what is generally considered to be one of the great organs of America, if not the world: the Newberry Memorial Organ, the work of the Skinner Organ Company in 1928, incorporating pipework from two previous organs. Unique as the organ is, even more rare is the fact that so large an organ, now almost 90 years old, is maintained in perfect working condition under the care of the Thompson-Allen firm.



Console of the Newberry Organ, Woolsey Hall, Yale University


Christ Church, Bronxville, NY

Christ Church Bronxville is a parish in the Diocese of New York which has long expressed its worship life through music and liturgy in a “high church” tradition. Known for its local adaptation of Sarum traditions, the parish was the host for the first AAM American Sarum regional conference in 2010.

Christ Church is the last parish church with which Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue was associated. It was Goodhue, together with his partner Ralph Adams Cram, who revolutionized the Gothic landscape of America in the first quarter of the 20th century. Goodhue supervised the siting and general plans but died before the church was completed.

The organs in Christ Church have been represented by some significant American builders. During the extraordinary 45-year tenue of Robert Owen the Aeolian-Skinner and Gress-Miles organs became well known through his concerts and recordings. As the vicissitudes of wear and tear took its toll, the organ was ultimately replaced after a long series of modifications and repairs by a new organ built by Casavant in 2010.



A service in the mid-1950s . . .


. . . and a recent celebration, Christ Church, Bronxville.


Glen Island Harbour Club, New Rochelle, NY

One of Westchester’s unique jewels, Glen Island was originally created in 1879 as a summer resort for a business representative named John H. Starin. In 1923, Glen Island Park and Casino was acquired by Westchester County.

The Glen Island Casino was a springboard to success for several noted bands during the 1930’s Big Band Era, including those of Ozzie Nelson, Charlie Barnet, Claude Thornhill, Les Brown and the Dorsey Brothers.

In March of 1939, Glenn Miller and his orchestra got their big break when they were chosen to play a summer season at the prestigious Glen Island Casino.

The casino was closed in 1978, but reopened in December 1983. The original shell of the building and the dance floor in the second-floor ballroom, where the bands played, were retained.

The club is now a premier event facility with stunning water views and award-winning cuisine and hospitality.


Glen Island Harbour Club, New Rochelle, New York


St. Mark’s Church, New Canaan, CT

Anglicans have worshiped in New Canaan since pre-Revolutionary War times; the original St. Mark’s is now St. Michael’s Lutheran Church in the center of town on God’s Acre, the original portion of the village set apart for its houses of worship. The present church, opened for worship in 1961, was designed by Stamford architect Willis N. Mills and draws its inspiration from Medieval principles applied to mid-twentieth century styles and techniques. The rood screen iconography is the work of Clark B. Fitz-Gerald and features sculptures of wood and metal.

St Mark’s takes its place among the other ecclesiastical and domestic designs in New Canaan that make the town a showplace for the American modern architectural movement of the 1950s, inspired by the European Bauhaus developed by Walter Gropius and Marcel Breuer and their students, among whom Philip Johnson was the best known.

Austin installed a new organ when the present church was built and has recently made some additions and modifications. The carillon in the tower is by Paccard.



Altar Screen designed by Clark B. Fitz-Gerald, organ and choir behind. St. Mark’s Church, New Canaan


St. Mark’s Church, Mt. Kisco, NY

Dating from 1909 St. Mark’s was one of the earliest churches designed by Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue. Goodhue was proud of this church, writing about it in 1910 to Montgomery Schuyler

At Mount Kisco, we have almost completed the best . . . church I have so far done; and though the tower isn’t on, the various details have been so carefully carried out and the atmosphere is so much that of an English church of the “right” period, that it would give you a better idea of my dreams and my gods (architecturally speaking) than anything else.

Among the details Goodhue oversaw was commissioning Hildreth Meiere to paint the altar triptych, her first professional work.

The present organ was built by Aeolian-Skinner as its Opus 1201 in 1951, and was designed by G. Donald Harrison, who placed his signature plate on the console. The organ became widely known via a recording by long-time organist Edgar Hilliar on the Aeolian-Skinner “King of Instruments” series of recordings.

St Marks Mt Kisco

St. Mark’s Church, Mt. Kisco, New York

StM interior 1 (2)

St. Mark’s, Mt. Kisco. The Positiv organ is suspended from the ceiling at the entrance to the chapel across the chancel from the main organ.


On Friday following the conference proper an optional tour visited these four outstanding venues in New York City.


The Church of the Intercession, at Broadway and 155th Street, once a chapel of the Parish of Trinity Church, is located in the midst of Trinity Cemetery where several notable New Yorker’s are buried, including Clement Clarke Moore, long-assumed to be the author of A Visit from St. Nicholas (’Twas the night before Christmas). Each year in December there is a procession to his grave and a candlelight reading of the famous story. Former New York mayor Edward I. Koch, himself Jewish, requested to be buried there, and he is.

From an architectural standpoint the church and parish buildings are the most complete ecclesiastical work of architect Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue. It was Goodhue’s favorite of his church buildings and he is buried near the font in the north transept in a tomb given by his architectural colleagues, containing reliefs of some of his famous buildings as rendered by sculptor Lee Lawrie.

Pictures of the organ case designed by Goodhue found their way into several books in the 20th century. Its use of en chamade pipework is probably the first instance of that in America, although the pipes themselves are non-speaking. Goodhue traveled to Mexico and it is thought that he was inspired by organ cases there containing reed pipes en chamade. The first organ in the church was built by Austin. The present organ is comprised of the Aeolian-Skinner organ formerly in St Paul’s Chapel of Trinity Parish, installed by Schlicker with additional new pipework and console.

Intercession NYC 3

Church of the Intercession, Broadway and 155th Street, NYC


Case of the original organ designed by Goodhue.


The Cathedral Church of Saint John the Divine is the largest Gothic church in the world and is the seat of the Bishop of the Diocese of New York. Following a competition which saw submissions from several architects in a wide variety of styles, construction began in 1892 to a design by Heins & LaFarge, who submitted the winning entry in the Byzantine-Romanesque style. When Heins died in 1907 the first phase of construction ended with the apse and choir complete. A “temporary” dome, still in place, was built by the Guastavino firm and Ralph Adams Cram was called to complete the cathedral in the Gothic style. Although Cram’s entire design has never been completed, the length of the nave was opened in 1941, a length of 601 feet.

The original organ was built by a young Ernest Skinner in 1906 as his Opus 150. It was extensively renovated with much new pipework by Aeolian-Skinner in 1951 to a design of G. Donald Harrison, including the famous State Trumpet at the west end. The organ was restored by Quimby and Douglass Hunt in 2008 following heavy smoke damage from a fire in the gift shop in the unfinished north transept.


A recent diocesan event.


St. James Church at Madison Avenue and 71st street on Manhattan’s Upper East Side is an unusual amalgamation of styles. Began in 1884 to a Romanesque design by R. H. Robertson, it placed the altar at the west end of the church, at the Madison Avenue side so that no new construction would block the sunlight on the apse windows surrounding the altar. The main entrance to the church was mid-block on Madison Avenue.
In the 1920s as the high Gothic style of ecclesiastical architecture was gaining favor throughout the country, and in New York in particular, the vestry of St. James engaged Ralph Adams Cram who essentially designed a new church using the existing structure as the footprint of the design to save money. A new chancel and elaborate altar reredos was created at the east end of the church, and a new entrance and tower was created opening on to Madison Avenue. This work was completed in time for services on Christmas Eve 1924.

There have been previous organs by Austin and Möller, and the present organ by Schoenstein contains complete chancel and gallery divisions.


St. James Church, 1884


The chancel of St. James Church, showing the organ facade and the reredos designed by Ralph Adams Cram.


Grace Church at Broadway and 10th Street was founded in 1805 in lower Manhattan just a few blocks from where several Episcopal churches were located, near where Trinity Church stands today. The present church was completed in 1846 and is the work of James Renwick, Jr., who was 24 years old at the time. Although his later design for St. Patrick’s Cathedral is better known, Grace Church is considered his masterpiece. The site on which the church stands was originally the farm of Henry Brevoort and legend has it that as the town fathers were extending Broadway north onto his farm, he stood guard with an ax threatening anyone attempting to build a road through his property. It is for this reason that Broadway takes an abrupt turn westward at this very point in its progress uptown. And as a result, Grace Church is the focal point of a commanding view appearing at the head of Broadway from over a mile downtown.

Grace Church has had a succession of fine organs and organists. The church for many years maintained a choir school, the first in the city (now a parish day school from which choristers are drawn), founded by James Morris Helfenstein. The choir and school flourished under the direction of Ernest Mitchell who was an “organist’s organist” in the early-mid 20th century. Both Tournemire and Vierne dedicated compositions to him, and many organists “of a certain age” will remember the picture of Mitchell at the imposing console of the 1928 Skinner organ which appeared in the World Book Encyclopedia in the 1950s and 60s. The console is now on display in the music office of the church.

The present organ by Taylor & Boody dates from 2013 and has been lauded as a tonal and engineering masterpiece.


An antique card picturing Grace Church in the 1920s.


Ernest Mitchell at Grace

Ernest Mitchell at the console of Skinner Opus 707, a photo which appeared in several editions of the World Book Encyclopedia in the 1950s and 1960s.


The Taylor & Boody organ.

Much of the information contained in these paragraphs is based on material found on the website of the New York City Chapter of the American Guild of Organists in the pages developed by Steve Lawson on the individual organs of the city: http://nycago.org/Organs/NYC/index.html


Several pictures from the conference:


Nick Thompson-Allen, John Boody, and Joe Dzeda


Jim Litton and Patrick Fennig


Philip Moore at the garden party at Christ Church Greenwich.


Conference committe chairman Geoff Smith, John Boody, Suzanne MacDonald, and Judith Hancock at the garden party on the grounds of Christ Church Greenwich.


Gregory Eaton and David Hurd at the Glen Island Harbour Club


Philip Stopford, Christopher Wells, Anne Timpane, and Geoff Smith, present and past organists of Christ Church, Bronxville.


Fr. Carl Turner in the pulpit at St. John’s in Stamford.


Bp. Keith Whitmore, with Rob Lehman and Sonya Sutton at the Glen Island Harbour Club.


Nick Andrews, Terry Eason, and Doug Hunt on the steps of St. John the Divine.


Barry Rose and Murray Sommerville at Grace Church, NYC.


John Boody at the tomb of Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue, Church of the Intercession, NYC.


A memorable week draws to a close.

Leave a comment

Filed under Articles, Uncategorized

A Brief History of St. Stephen’s Church, Richmond, Va., and Its Aeolian-Skinner Organ

This article was commissioned by Emery Brothers and appeared in the December 2017 issue of  The Diapason.

Copyright 2017 © Neal Campbell

Continue reading

Leave a comment

Filed under Articles, Uncategorized

Review of a Biography of Ralph Adams Cram, Gothic Architect

Shand-Tucci, Douglass.  Boston Bohemia, 1881-1900, Volume I of Ralph Adams Cram: Life and Architecture.  Illustrated (Amherst:University ofMassachusetts Press) 569 pp., hardcover $50, recently available softbound $20.


Copyright 1997 © Neal Campbell

This review appeared in The Journal of the Association of Anglican Musicians, Vol. VI, No. 9 (November/December 1997).  It also appeared in abbreviated form in The Living Church, January 11, 1998.

If readers of the Journal know Cram’s name at all, it is for the famous churches and collegiate chapels he designed, among the best-known being the Cathedral Church of St. John the Divine and St. Thomas Church in New York, and the chapels of Princeton University and the University of Chicago, together with scores of parish churches of various denominations throughout the country.

However, I doubt that even the most ardent and knowledgeable aficionado of his work would know of Cram’s pursuits outside architecture.  He was a prolific author and playwright and the editor and architectural reviewer for a quarterly journal on the liberal arts.  His name first achieved prominence in a letter to the editor criticizing a proposed plan to alter Copley Square in Boston.  His poem “Nottingham Hunt” was set to music by Frederick Field Bullard, a member of a coterie of artists, craftsmen, poets, and musicians known as the “first American Avant-Garde,” according to Steven Watson (quoted in Strange Bedfellows: The First American Avant-Garde, New York: Abeville, 1991), who lived in proximity on Pinckney Street “just on the fringes of polite society” in Boston’s Beacon Hill.  The work was successful enough that it was performed at a concert in Boston’s Symphony Hall.

The present book is the first of two proposed volumes detailing Cram’s life and work, and at 569 pages, brings us to Cram at age 37, before he had completed his best-known churches.  His early life is covered in a few paragraphs.  The chronicle really begins when Cram moved to Boston’s Pinckney Street in 1881 at the age of 17.  It was there that he was surrounded by a who’s who of Boston’s artistic community, from which the book derives its title.  The pages chronicle a parade of persons such as Charles Eliot Norton, Bliss Carmen, Bernard Berenson, Louis Imogene Guiney, a cameo appearance by Khalil Gibran (who, although today the best-known of the group, was a minor player at the time), Daniel Gregory Mason, Fred Holland Day, and Henry Vaughan—noted architect of St. Paul’s School Chapel in Concord, New Hampshire, and the first architect of Washington’s National Cathedral, whose relationship with Cram Shand-Tucci likens to that of Aaron Copland and Leonard Bernstein, in one of his endless attempts to read sexual pseudo-psychology into virtually everything and everyone, including relationships between persons and their respective artistic works.  This collection of Boston aesthetes was presided over by the unquestioned grande dame-patroness of the day, Isabella Stewart Gardner, whose home was the repository of many artistic works of the group and is the present-day Gardner Museum.

Ralph Adams Cram

In his attempt to make sure no stone toes unturned, Shand-Tucci makes generous use not only of parenthetical expressions, but footnotes as well.  The reader who truly wants to keep track of each of the principal players, their roles and works, and their relationships to each other—to say nothing of Shand-Tucci’s commentary—will want to keep a legal pad and several sharpened pencils nearby.  It is not a casual, easy read.  Those who are tempted to skim for information on specific churches will have to work at it.

But the information is there, and important information it is.  There are those who will fault the book as unnecessarily expanding the definition of a biography, and, to be sure, there are indeed extended forays into areas not expected in a biography of an architect.  I will simply offer the observation that the material could easily be split into two or three shorter monographs on different subjects and that there is a lot of material only peripherally related to Cram.  As it stands, there are several levels at which the book may be understood, and depending on your points of view, most readers will identify with one or two levels and cautiously question some of the rest.  These levels, as they occur to me, are as follows—and it is my opinion that the author’s contributions to each individual sub-topic are listed in order of significance:

  1. Actual biographical information on Cram and his buildings.
  2. A social history of Boston and its artistic community at the turn of the 20th century.
  3. Shorter biographical material on artists and craftsmen working in conjunction with Cram.
  4. A history of architectural modernism.
  5. Homosexuality and religion.

Shand-Tucci is at his most convincing, and overwhelmingly so, when he sticks to specific architectural commentary within the biographical context.  He has obviously spent a lifetime studying Cram and has the sort of intimate knowledge of Cram’s buildings which could only have been obtained from many first-hand visits.  He has written other articles on Cram, obviously knows his subject thoroughly, and has a way of infusing compelling commentary within the context of another topic entirely.  For instance, the following few sentences appear all within the context of discussing Cram’s acceptance into New England societal spheres:

“Cram and Goodhue’s [Cram’s equally well-known partner Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue] splendid St. Stephen’s Church in Cohasset, outside Boston, designed in 1899, boldly modern in its square-headed fenestration and strikingly skewed in its profile, ravishingly picturesque for all its severity, quite overwhelms the old meetinghouse visible from its precincts across the town green . . . As a matter of fact, the way Goodhue stylishly elongated the curved oaken towers of St. Stephen’s high altar reredos so that they reach up daringly, like exotic tendrils of detail, to engage the stained-glass window above the altar, thus integrating superbly reredos and glass in service to Cram’s principle of liturgical art, distinctly foreshadows Goodhue’s later masterpiece of reredos and glass, the high altar at St. Thomas, Fifth Avenue, New York.”  [Typically, it was Goodhue who designed the interior detail of the firm’s churches.]

Ralph Adams Cram on the cover of Time Magazine, Dec 13, 1926

On the biographical level, Shand-Tucci also quotes significant portions of Cram’s own non-architectural writings, albeit for the purpose of filtering them through his own psychoanalytical musings, suppositions, and mind-readings, of which there are equally significant portions.  Shand-Tucci’s insights into areas two, three, and four above are valuable, though less so than his biographical-architectural material on the subject.  For instance, there are several vignettes of Cram and his coterie and their influence on the founding of important clubs in Boston such as the Tavern, St. Botolph, and Papyrus, and the building of the Boston Public Library in Copley Square.  There is also interesting commentary throughout the book on the parallel arts of the era: poetry, fiction, playwriting, painting, photography, and publishing.  For lovers of Cram’s churches, there are identifications and accounts of many contributing craftsmen, whose work we may have admired for years, knowing little about their creators, such as stained glass artist Charles Connick, wood carver Johannes Kirchmayer, the Irving and Casson firm, and Lee Lawrie, who carved the reredos at St. Thomas Fifth Avenue, the pulpit, lectern, and altar rail at St. Bartholomew’s, and many secular works in Rockefeller Center.  There is, as well, ongoing dialogue on the historical context of architecture in the post-Victorian, Richardsonian era, the era immediately preceding cubism in painting, imagism in poetry, and dodecaphony in music.

The author is decidedly at his most controversial in the fifth level, where he analyzes in great detail the relationships between homoeroticism, aestheticism, Anglo-Catholicism, and architecture.  It makes for very interesting reading, however, especially in the climate of church politics in the present day.  Shand-Tucci takes us on a virtual tour of the psychological foundations of gay culture.  From the early Freudian-Jungian movement, through Walt Whitman and Oscar Wilde—each well-known to the Pinckney Street crowd—we are told of the early attempts to define and label the term homosexuality (Whitman), to the first use of the term gay as a euphemism for homosexuality in 1912 (Gertrude Stein).  The book is full of speculation and deduction about who was and who was not, analysis of Cram’s relationship with his partner Goodhue, and repeated themes of decadence and aestheticism.  Much of Shand-Tucci’s assertions are hard to take, especially when assigning erotic symbolism to things architectural, as he does in his discussion of the rood-beam iconography at All Saints, Ashmont, Boston.  But he makes his case strongly, complete with citation for further study, should the reader want to explore the avenue he opens.

Lee Lawrie’s reredos at St Thomas Church

For my part, I tend to agree with Walter Kendrick, professor at Fordham University, in the New York Times Book Review of July 30, 1995, shortly after the book’s initial publication:

“Mr. Shand-Tucci’s tireless ingenuity finds everything it seeks in Cram’s columns, spires and reredoses, yet the enterprise of “sexing architecture” seems to me both unconvincing and, in the end, unnecessary.”

Having said that, the book is an important work which should be in the possession of anyone with more than a cursory interest in church architecture, the allied religious arts, and the liturgical revival brought about by the Oxford Movement—the implications of which are still strongly felt today.

Volume II, in preparation and to be titled American Gothic, will cover Cram’s life when he designed his most famous churches.

Leave a comment

Filed under Reviews